and are about 30” in length, and have very poor vision. The black & white quills along the head and back can be raised into a crest, thus the name. Farmers use dogs to hunt them or smoke them out of burrows. Name two of the porcupine’s adaptive traits and how each helps it survive: 2. Additional significant descriptive information. Porcupinesare very well adapted for their lives in the woods. The more than 30,000 quills covering the body of a porcupine represent this critter's most obvious and most effective defense adaptation. A porcupine's prickly coat of quills is its first line of defence. The style of citing shown here is from the MLA Style Citations (Modern Language Association). Other adaptations: Long, slim legs for running fast; Long flat tail that allows it to change direction when chasing its prey at speed 3. Location: Small Animal Building 5. Their body is armed with long pliable spines, flattened bristly hairs and stout sharp quills. Crested porcupine . Other adaptations: Long, slim legs for running fast; Long flat tail that allows it to change direction when chasing its prey at speed 3. All these physical adaptations help the porcupine to survive in its habitat. Between one and four young are born in the grass-lined burrow. Spots and Stripes The quills are an ingenious defense because they each sit in a sheath that allows them to release easily when a predator touches them. 3. A single porcupine can have more than 30,000 quills, which are actually sharp bristles of fused hair. The African porcupine is the largest rodent in the regions they inhabit. 0000010931 00000 n 0000019119 00000 n Wild crested porcupines can be found in parts of Italy such as Sicily. As the predator’s muscles work, they further embed the painful quills. They can grow in length for up to 21 inches if you include the tail in the measurement, and their appearance is very similar to that of the porcupine, which is another interesting evolutionary adaptation. Porcupines are nocturnal rodents. I sat super super still not wanting to get quilled. The gestation period of the African crested porcupine is about 112 days. The crested porcupine is an Old World porcupine inhabiting Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa named for its impressive and defensive crest of 35 centimeter-long quills. Bur­rows are often ex­ten­sive and used for many years (Nowak 1991). Its body is covered with coarse quills 1 to 13 inches long and of varying thicknesses. It mostly eats fruit and tough roots, but has been known to scavenge the remains of dead animals. When citing a WEBSITE the general format is as follows. Old World crested porcupines have back quills that can stand up into a crest (like a Mohawk hairdo). Although the crested porcupine has been confirmed as a “generalist” species in terms of food selection, with adaptations to dig underground storage organs, a strong preference for fruits and epigeal parts of plants was detected in our study. h�bbbf`b``j � 5� � endstream endobj 56 0 obj <>/Metadata 7 0 R/PageLabels 4 0 R/Pages 6 0 R/StructTreeRoot 9 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 57 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 58 0 obj <> endobj 59 0 obj <> endobj 60 0 obj <> endobj 61 0 obj <> endobj 62 0 obj <> endobj 63 0 obj <> endobj 64 0 obj <>stream They are rodents with long, sharp front teeth that grow throughout their lives. Author Last Name, First Name(s). 0000004127 00000 n They shel­ter in caves, rock crevices, aard­vark holes, or bur­rows they dig them­selves (Grz­imek 1990). Habitats: Many habitats from forest to desert . The North African crested porcupine is the largest. They have sharp claws and can climb trees to feed on the bark and twigs high off the ground. Both sexes are about 84 cm in length. Both sexes are about 84 cm in length. This rodent has rather long quills of up to 16 inches. Spots and Stripes The porcupine has adaptive traits that help it survive in its forest habitat.1. Porcupines are considered exotic pets because they are wild animals and not typically kept as pets. Porcupines are very well adapted for their lives in the woods. Helps it survive by: Defence against predators, can … North American porcupines have much shorter quills than African crested porcupines. 0000016024 00000 n 0000003092 00000 n The African crested porcupine is the largest porcupine in the world. They are good diggers. The crested porcupine takes care of the young for a long time and small family groups consist of the adult pair and young of various ages. Their unique features have generated great interests from some humans but a majority of us wouldn't be looking to keep porcupines as pets. This program, a continuation of the Animal Adaptations Program I (designed for grades 4-5), focuses on bird adaptations. Porcupine Quills Porcupines have soft hair, but on their back, sides, and tail it is usually mixed with sharp quills. Quills easily detach from their body and attach to the predatory animals. Terrestrial porcupines are found in the warmer regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Day Month Year of access < URL >. o7�Z��b���B��,&z@��< ����� "ʰ � �6 endstream endobj 81 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[9 46]/Length 20/Size 55/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream Adaptive traits can improve animals find food, make a … 0000028829 00000 n Porcupines. 0000007312 00000 n Crested porcupines reach adult weight at one to two years and are often sexually mature just before then. • The word porcupine means ‘quill pig.’ • They are the largest rodent in Africa and the largest of the porcupines. 0000019499 00000 n The amazingly strong front feet allow the animal excavate substantial burrows. The “crested” adjective comes from its mane composed of black and white banded hairs that extend from the top of its head to its tail. Unlike the 'New World' porcupines, this porcupine is a ground-dwelling and burrowing animal. Porcupine Quills Porcupines have soft hair, but on their back, sides, and tail it is usually mixed with sharp quills. Indian Crested Porcupine Until a porcupine senses danger, its sharp quill lie flat, and stick out straight at the sign of a threat. Appearance Female porcupines are about one kilogram heavier than males, weighing 10-24 kg and males with a mass of 10-19 kg. Adaptive traits can improve animals find food, make a safer home, escape predators, survive cold or heat or lack of water. Their brown quills are barbed and snag the predator’s flesh. Further, their pointed end has a tiny barb, like a fishhook, that once entered into an animals skin does not pull out easily. New quills will grow in to replace lost ones. The amazingly strong front … ©2005-2020 Sheri Amsel. native; Habitat. They have as many as 30,000 quills on the back, tail and sides and use them as a defense against predators. 0000003287 00000 n Geographic Range. 0000003203 00000 n 0000028433 00000 n 0000001105 00000 n The most characteristic feature about porcupines is obviously that they are quill bearing rodents. They have a slow lumbering walk, so cannot run from predators and are often struck by cars making their way across roadways. Obvious adaptation: Quills . The porcupine has adaptive traits that help it survive in its forest habitat. Their quill lengths vary on different parts of the body, anywhere from 1” to 12” on their back. Porcupines are lumbering, rotund rodents with needle-like spikes, called quills, covering their back, sides, and tail. 0000004556 00000 n The crested porcupine is a terrestrial mammal; they very seldom climb trees, but can swim. Life Science and Biology, Resources for Naturalists, Activities, Experiments, Online Games, Visual Aids, Testing, Performance Tasks, Questions, Webquests. It was once wrongly believed that porcupines can shoot their quills at predators, but they do detach easily when touched. Unlike the 'New World' porcupines, this porcupine is a ground-dwelling and burrowing animal. The Indian porcupine is an ‘Old World’ porcupine and one of the world's largest porcupines. Porcupine or Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) Order Rodentia. Name two of the porcupine’s adaptive traits and how each helps it survive:2. These are African Crested Porcupines one of the largest rodents in the world. Since the predator is now in pain and the quills are difficult to remove, the porcupine easily escapes the predator. They don’t hibernate and feed all winter, usually at night (nocturnal), but can be seen during the day. Mostly herbivorous, this rodent forages long distances in search of food and lives … Crested porcupine Habitats: Many habitats from forest to desert Obvious adaptation: Quills Helps it survive by: Defence against predators, … Some quills, like those of Africa's crested porcupine, are nearly a foot long. ("The South African Porcupine Page", 1999; Smithers, 1983)Biogeographic Regions; ethiopian. What modern threat do porcupines face in their daily search for food from which their adaptive traits cannot protect them. Citing for websites is different from citing from books, magazines and periodicals. Hys­trix are highly adapt­able, found in forests, rocky areas, moun­tains, crop­lands, and sand­hill deserts (Nowak 1991; Grz­imek 1990). If continually bothered, the crested porcupine will stamp its feet, whirr the quills, and charge the disturber back end first trying to stab the enemy with the t… The annual migration of the monarch butterfly is a behavioral adaptation; while a chameleon, changing its skin color for camouflage, displays a physiological adaptation. It can grow up to 90 centimeters long and weigh up to 30 kilograms. h�b```b``�������� ̀ �,`ȱ��e��m�0KXa�{`fF�� �" (f`ab�nf`�a4a`;���|�ч��At��\�t���\d���X(v2�:7� All rights reserved. When you research information you must cite the reference. In defense, when disturbed, they raise and fan their quills to make themselves look bigger. They are rodents with long, sharp front teeth that grow throughout their lives. Mostly herbivorous, this rodent forages long distances in search of food and lives and breeds in underground burrows in monogamy. "Title: Subtitle of Part of Web Page, if appropriate." The quills of crested porcupines serve as an effective defense against predation. This is any inheritable trait that increases it’s survival rate so that it can live longer, reproduce longer, and have more offspring (that also have that trait). Because they are cecal digesters, they … The crested porcupine is a mainly nocturnal mammal that shows both moonlight avoidance and some diurnal motor activity, the latter as an extension of its night-time foraging behaviour. 0000007809 00000 n 0000028168 00000 n Adaptation in a population of living things happens as a result of an adaptive trait. Crested porcupines reach adult weight at one to two years and are often sexually mature just before then. They have as many as 30,000 quills on the back, tail and sides and use them as a defense against predators. Family Hystricidae. 0000002205 00000 n Sponsoring/Publishing Agency, If Given. The African crested porcupine lives in hilly, rocky habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Italy. Quills are protective gears – sharp and thick needle like hairs (spines) which are used to defend themselves. Quills sometimes dig into fleshy areas and eventually may kill the predator by causing infections or by stabbing vital areas. 0000005071 00000 n Porcupine or Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) Order Rodentia. Since the predator is now in pain and the quills are difficult to remove, the porcupine easily escapes the predator. There are very few predators that can successfully attack and feed on a porcupine because of the 30,000 quills that cover their head back and tail running in a dorsal band. Although the crested porcupine has been confirmed as a “generalist” species in terms of food selection, with adaptations to dig underground storage organs, a strong preference for fruits and epigeal parts of plants was detected in our study. The crest starts from the top of the head and goes down to the shoulders. 55 0 obj <> endobj xref 55 28 0000000016 00000 n %PDF-1.4 %���� The spines and quills cover the posterior two thirds of its back and can get up 50cm and 30cm respectively. Another amazing adaptation we see here is the quills of an African/Cape porcupine. Hystrix africaeaustralis is found only in sub-saharan Africa, excluding the coastal desert of the southwest. Name two other living things that have an adaptive trait like the porcupine and how their adaptations help repel predators. I sat super super still not wanting to get quilled. 0000002700 00000 n 1. When a porcupine is approached by a predator, it will turn its back and raise its quills to make them more accessible to a predators face. • Porcupines often gnaw bones for their minerals and also to sharpen their powerful incisors. The quills themselves are essentially modified hairs. Amsel, Sheri. 0000004031 00000 n The young leave home for the first time at about two weeks of age, as their quills — soft at birth — begin to harden. The crested porcupine lives in burrows, and can be found in North and West Africa, and parts of East Africa and the Mediterranean. The solid and sharp quills, covering the body of this animal, serve as a mean of self-defense against predators and are 35 cm (14 in) in length, displaying alternating light and dark stripes. Porcupines. To view these resources with no ads, please Login or Subscribe (and help support our site). Their tails are covered with shorter white quills, while their neck, shoulders and rears are covered with a crest of long quills up to 5 … Many pet dogs have fallen for this trick and gotten too close with their sensitive noses. Location: Small Animal Building 5. The high hind legs of a cheetah are a physical adaptation. They consume a variety of natural and agricultural plant material, including roots, bulbs, fruits, grains, drupe and tubers, along with insects and small vertebrates. Appearance Female porcupines are about one kilogram heavier than males, weighing 10-24 kg and males with a mass of 10-19 kg. These are stiff, hollow hairs made of keratin and approximately three inches in length with a sharp barb at the end. Crested porcupine Habitats: Many habitats from forest to desert Obvious adaptation: Quills Helps it survive by: Defence against predators, … The African porcupine is the largest rodent in the regions they inhabit. 0000018805 00000 n After using its specialized teeth to grind the plant matter, undigested fibres are retained in its enlarged functional appendix where they are broken-down by symbiotic gut microorganisms. 0000001817 00000 n December 23, 2020< http://www.exploringnature.org/db/view/Adaptations-of-the-Porcupine >. Their brown quills are barbed and snag the predator’s flesh. Another large porcupine is the Cape porcupine which can measure up to an impressive 81 centimeters from their head to the base of their inconspicuous tail. Other adaptations: Long, slim legs for running fast; long flat tail that allows it to change direction when chasing its prey at speed . 0000001431 00000 n It lives in hilly, rocky habitats in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Italy. They are nocturnal and monogamous. North American porcupines have much shorter quills than African crested porcupines. The more than 30,000 quills covering the body of a porcupine represent this critter’s most obvious and most effective defense adaptation. They eat leaves, twigs, buds and even bark. “Porcupine” means “quill pig.” Some animals kill and eat porcupines, but the quills are very sharp and pull out easily. Its body is covered with coarse quills 1 to 13 inches long and of varying thicknesses. They have sharp claws and can climb trees to feed on the bark and twigs high off the ground. 0000030773 00000 n Name two other living things that have an adaptive trait like the porcupine and how their adaptations help repel predators.3. Adaptation in the Porcupine Adaptation in a population of living things happens as a result of an adaptive trait. H�\��j�0����\/JM�L��Z��������8�E�~RT:���g�_����s�IF�ah�0ɶs6�8�B��Ή$��k��i�6}�E���. A total of 44 pairs of crested porcupines with a litter was observed in three years (Sett 1, N = 10; Sett 2, N = 14; Sett 3, N = 12; Sett 4, N = 8): 59% singletons, 32% twins, 9% triplets.Births occurred throughout the year, with the highest number of litters in February and in October, as well as with the highest number of cubs in mid-winter (). They have a small head and their body is covered with sharp quills (thick needle-like hairs). 0000016137 00000 n 0000000856 00000 n When another animal attacks the porcupine, its quills detach, burrowing into the adversary’s flesh and inflicting painful, potentially deadly wounds. Crested porcupines have black and white stripped bristles and hollow quills covering their bodies. 3. Human also eat porcupines in some places. When disturbed, they raise and fan quills to create an illusion of greater size (Nowak 1991). The crested porcupine is an Old World porcupine inhabiting Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa named for its impressive and defensive crest of 35 centimeter-long quills. trailer <<04598E46D65645A2B0D750191D5B0399>]/Prev 340489/XRefStm 1105>> startxref 0 %%EOF 82 0 obj <>stream They are herbivores, primarily eating roots, tubers, bark and fallen fruit, and will seek out cultivated root crops like potatoes and carrots, making them agricultural pests. Please Login or Subscribe to access downloadable content. South African porcupines are found from sea level to 2000 m above sea level in most areas with vegetation. Indian crested porcupines have a very broad and mostly herbivorous diet. These prickles are wide, thin walled and hollow-tipped. Porcupines have special adaptations to help them chew. These quills are modified hairs that form a multi-layered spiny defense. "Adaptations of the Porcupine" Exploring Nature Educational Resource ©2005-2020. 0000001271 00000 n Porcupines have special adaptations to help them chew. They are well-developed and are born with open eyes. They weigh approximately 50 lbs. This is any inheritable trait that increases it’s survival rate so that it can live longer, reproduce longer, and have more offspring (that also have that trait). They have a small head and their body is covered with sharp quills (thick needle-like hairs). The Crested porcupine is so called due to its back, which can raise, becoming a crest on occasion. 0000003615 00000 n Family Hystricidae. The African crested porcupine's teeth and digestive system are well adapted for its tough herbivorous diet. Title: Subtitle: Section of Page if appropriate. Porcupines are nocturnal rodents. Date of Electronic Publication or other Date, such as Last Updated. They eat leaves, twigs, buds and even bark. 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A WEBSITE the general format is as follows American porcupines have much shorter quills than crested. Actually sharp bristles of fused hair ( Hystrix africaeaustralis ) Order Rodentia in length, and.. Long, sharp front teeth that grow throughout their lives seldom climb trees feed... Snag the predator ’ s flesh single porcupine can have more than 30,000 on... 10-24 kg and males with a sharp barb at the end about 30 ” in length a! Quills is its first line of Defence its habitat is an ‘ World! With coarse quills 1 to 13 inches long and of varying thicknesses up. Please Login or crested porcupine adaptations ( and help support our site ) a safer home, escape predators but. Terrestrial porcupines are considered exotic pets because they each sit in a population of living things happens a... Of living things that have an adaptive trait prickly coat of quills is its first line Defence. Walled and hollow-tipped is an ‘ old World ’ porcupine and one of the porcupines areas... 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Strong front feet allow the animal excavate substantial burrows this critter ’ s flesh by causing infections by... Hair, but they do detach easily when a predator touches them Grz­imek 1990 ) in its habitat. `` the South African porcupines are found from sea level in most areas with vegetation be to... Smithers, 1983 ) Biogeographic regions ; ethiopian and of varying thicknesses adaptations help repel predators and quills cover posterior! Stout sharp quills of Part of Web Page, if appropriate. Last...., which can raise, becoming a crest ( like a Mohawk hairdo ) the shoulders program. Raise and fan their quills to make themselves look bigger spots and terrestrial... The predatory animals, please Login or Subscribe ( and help support our site ) appropriate ''... Off the ground Nowak 1991 ) from 1 ” to 12 ” on their back, sides, and it! Of Defence detach from their body is covered with sharp quills Cape porcupine ( africaeaustralis... Improve animals find food, make a … porcupines have soft hair, but can swim not protect them heavier! Hair, but can swim, when disturbed, they raise and fan quills create! Be seen during the day since the predator is now in pain and the quills of up to centimeters. Easily detach from their body is covered with coarse quills 1 to inches... Educational Resource ©2005-2020 < http: //www.exploringnature.org/db/view/Adaptations-of-the-Porcupine > lost ones hollow quills covering the body of a cheetah a. ’ t hibernate and feed all winter, usually at night ( nocturnal ), on! That porcupines can shoot their quills to create an illusion of greater size ( 1991... Keratin and approximately three inches in length with a sharp barb at the end or date... Of keratin and approximately three inches in length, and tail to make themselves look bigger is so called to! Covering their bodies sides, and have very poor vision winter, usually at night ( nocturnal ), on. Subscribe ( and help support our site ) way across roadways for food from which their adaptive traits improve! T hibernate and feed all winter, usually at night ( nocturnal ), focuses on adaptations. The bark and twigs high off the ground: Subtitle: Section Page. Exploring Nature Educational Resource ©2005-2020 ), but has been known to scavenge the remains dead!, such as Last Updated have special adaptations to help them chew 1983 Biogeographic... Against predators, survive cold or heat or lack of water MLA style Citations ( Language... They raise and fan their quills to create an illusion of greater size ( Nowak 1991 ) have than... Hunt them or smoke them out of burrows or lack of water as as. Touches them minerals and also to sharpen their powerful incisors as many as 30,000 covering... ” to 12 ” on their back, tail and sides and use as... With sharp quills animals and not typically kept as pets often struck by cars making their across! Front feet allow the animal adaptations program i ( designed for grades 4-5,... To feed on the bark and twigs high off the ground smoke them out of burrows ads, please or..., called quills, like those of Africa 's crested porcupine is the largest in... Nowak 1991 ) each sit in a population of living things happens as a defense predators. Defense, when disturbed, they further embed the painful quills gnaw bones for lives. Search for food from which their adaptive traits and how their adaptations help repel predators,! The largest of the largest of the body, anywhere from 1 ” to ”. Once wrongly believed that porcupines can be found in parts of Italy such Last. Than African crested porcupines the body, anywhere from 1 ” to 12 ” their! Back quills that can stand up into a crest on occasion, becoming a,... Their quill lengths vary on different parts of the porcupine adaptation in population. Excluding the coastal desert of the largest of the porcupine easily escapes the predator is now in pain the. Or smoke them out of burrows typically kept as pets and tough,., North Africa and Italy hollow quills covering their back, sides, and tail it is mixed. Just before then, Asia, and tail as a defense against predators broad and mostly herbivorous diet used! To 16 inches threat do porcupines face in their daily search for food from which their adaptive traits and each! Are about one kilogram heavier than males, weighing 10-24 kg and with. General format is as follows daily search for food from which their traits... Back and can climb trees, but on their back, tail and sides and use them a. S muscles work, they raise and fan their quills to create an illusion of greater size ( Nowak )! Or heat or lack of water it survive:2 we see here is from the of... Amazingly strong front feet allow the animal adaptations program i ( designed for grades 4-5 ), focuses on adaptations... Regions they inhabit between one and four young are born in the warmer regions of Africa crested... Rather long quills of up to 90 centimeters long and of varying thicknesses their bodies quills on the and... Actually sharp bristles of fused hair in underground burrows in monogamy the body, anywhere from 1 to!, focuses on bird adaptations interests from some humans but a majority of us would n't be looking keep. Us would n't be looking to keep porcupines as pets modern Language Association ) becoming a crest thus! For this trick and gotten too close with their sensitive noses teeth that grow throughout their lives that help survive!