[243], Shortly afterwards, the Jews inside the Eastern Roman Empire, in Egypt, Cyprus and Cyrene – this last province being probably the original trouble hotspot – rose up in what probably was an outburst of religious rebellion against the local pagans, this widespread rebellion being afterwards named the Kitos War. Although his ancestors, whether or not original settlers, were undoubtedly Roman, or at least Italian, they may well have intermarried with natives. Literary sources relate that Trajan had considered others, such as the jurist Lucius Neratius Priscus, as heir. [266] He probably did not take part in the Parthian War. [172] The same notion of exploiting private – and supposedly more efficient – management of a landed estate as a means to obtain public revenue was also employed by other similar and lesser schemes. [21] Later, after his 91 consulate (held with Acilius Glabrio, a rare pair of consuls at the time, in that neither consul was a member of the ruling dynasty), he held some unspecified consular commission as governor on either Pannonia or Germania Superior – possibly both. [197] Accordingly, in his controversial book on the Ancient economy, Finley considers Trajan's "badly miscalculated and expensive assault on Parthia" to be an example of the many Roman "commercial wars" that had in common the fact of existing only in the books of modern historians. [211] At the same time, a Roman column under the legate Lusius Quietus – an outstanding cavalry general[212] who had signaled himself during the Dacian Wars by commanding a unit from his native Mauretania[213] – crossed the Araxes river from Armenia into Media Atropatene and the land of the Mardians (present-day Ghilan). Notable structures include the Baths of Trajan, Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Column, Trajan's Bridge, Alcántara Bridge, Porto di Traiano of Portus, the road and canal around the Iron Gates (see conquest of Dacia), and possibly the Alconétar Bridge. Trajan abandoned the policy of not extending the Roman frontiers established by Augustus. However, the fact that he chose not to hasten towards Rome, but instead to make a lengthy tour of inspection on the Rhine and Danube frontiers, hints to the possible fact that his power position in Rome was unsure and that he had first to assure himself of the loyalty of the armies at the front. He had to renounce claim to some regions of his kingdom, return all Roman runaways (most of them technical experts), and surrender all his war machines. He was also governor of Asia and Syria at one time. However, senatorial opinion never forgave Domitian for paying what was seen as "tribute" to a Barbarian king. [73] Last but not least, inordinate spending on civic buildings was not only a means to achieve local superiority, but also a means for the local Greek elites to maintain a separate cultural identity – something expressed in the contemporary rise of the Second Sophistic; this "cultural patriotism" acted as a kind of substitute for the loss of political independence,[74] and as such was shunned by Roman authorities. Non-citizens who admitted to being Christians and refused to recant, however, were to be executed "for obstinacy". Impressive examples survive in Spain, in North Africa, in the Balkans, and in Italy. In late 117, while sailing back to Rome, Trajan fell ill and died of a stroke in the city of Selinus. [270] The fact that during Hadrian's reign he did not pursue Trajan's senatorial policy may account for the "crass hostility" shown him by literary sources. [151], For the next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. [141] The fact that these former Danubian outposts had ceased to be frontier bases and were now in the deep rear acted as an inducement to their urbanization and development. Race and Ethinicity ⓘ Summary. 004;PS 001. Jens Gering, Rezension zu: Karl Strobel, Kaiser Traian – Eine Epoche der Weltgeschichte, Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (father of Trajan), Gaius Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappos, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, "Battle of Sarmizegetusa (Sarmizegetuza), A.D. 105: De Imperatoribus Romanis", "Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trajan&oldid=995359199, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2020, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 16:42. [134], Trajan built a new city, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, on another site (north of the hill citadel holding the previous Dacian capital),[135] although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. What is certain is that there was an increased Roman military presence in Judea at the time. Trajan, Latin in full Caesar Divi Nervae Filius Nerva Traianus Optimus Augustus, also called (97–98 CE) Caesar Nerva Traianus Germanicus, original name Marcus Ulpius Traianus, (born September 15?, 53 ce, Italica, Baetica [now in Spain]—died August 8/9, 117, Selinus, Cilicia [now in Turkey]), Roman emperor (98–117 ce) who sought to extend the boundaries of the empire to the east (notably in Dacia, Arabia, Armenia, and Mesopotamia), undertook a vast building program, and enlarged social welfare. He declared Babylon a new province of the Empire and had his statue erected on the shore of the Persian Gulf,[230] after which he sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and bemoaning that he was too old to go on any further and repeat the conquests of Alexander the Great. [59] What the Greek oligarchies wanted from Rome was, above all, to be left in peace, to be allowed to exert their right to self-government (i.e., to be excluded from the provincial government, as was Italy) and to concentrate on their local interests. Légat de Germanie supérieure, il est adopté par Nerva et associé à son pouvoir (97), puis lui succède en 98. [191], Other historians reject these motives, as the supposed Parthian "control" over the maritime Far Eastern trade route was, at best, conjectural and based on a selective reading of Chinese sources – trade by land through Parthia seems to have been unhampered by Parthian authorities and left solely to the devices of private enterprise. Although frequently designated the first provincial emperor, his Nevertheless, the imperial guard (the praetorian cohorts) forced the new emperor to execute the assassins who had secured the throne for him. The Greeks, though, had their own memories of independence – and a commonly acknowledged sense of cultural superiority – and, instead of seeing themselves as Roman, disdained Roman rule. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicly acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra showed him clearly aged and emaciated. On January 1, 98, Trajan entered upon his second consulship as Nerva’s colleague. A propos de la guerre parthique de Trajan. The Romans gradually tightened their grip around Decebalus' stronghold in Sarmizegetusa Regia,[123] which they finally took and destroyed. Also, a mural of Trajan stopping to provide justice for a poor widow is present in the first terrace of Purgatory as a lesson to those who are purged for being proud. "[71][72], These same Roman authorities had also an interest in assuring the cities' solvency and therefore ready collection of Imperial taxes. The full Adobe Fonts library is cleared for both personal and commercial use. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace within the Empire and prosperity in the Mediterranean world. Pierre Lambrechts, "Trajan et le récrutement du Sénat". Trajan. What was permanently included in the province, after the post-Trajanic evacuation of some land across the lower Danube,[143] were the lands extending from the Danube to the inner arch of the Carpathian Mountains, including Transylvania, the Metaliferi Mountains and Oltenia. Trajan's putative lovers included Hadrian, pages of the imperial household, the actor Pylades, a dancer called Apolaustus, and senator Lucius Licinius Sura. T. Olajos, "Le monument du triomphe de Trajan en Parthie. He commissioned either the creation or enlargement of the road along the Iron Gates, carved into the side of the gorge. Pliny – who seems to deliberately avoid offering details that would stress personal attachment between Trajan and the "tyrant" Domitian – attributes to him, at the time, various (and unspecified) feats of arms. He also became a general over a full Roman legion. His father, of the same name, was a senator and had served as consul. [141] The garrison city of Oescus received the status of Roman colony after its legionary garrison was redeployed. [220] This process seems to have been completed at the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. [28] Sura is also described as telling Hadrian in 108 about his selection as imperial heir. For Italy and the provinces, he remitted the gold that cities had customarily sent to emperors on their accession. "Les derniers travaux des historiens roumains sur la Dacie". It was not a decisive victory, however. [231] Another hypothesis is that the rulers of Charax had expansionist designs on Parthian Babylon, giving them a rationale for alliance with Trajan. He sent out at least two special governors to provinces whose cities had suffered financial difficulties. [175] The fact that the alimenta were begun during and after the Dacian Wars and twice came on the heels of a distribution of money to the population of Rome (congiaria) following Dacian triumphs, points towards a purely charitable motive. This was undoubtedly intended, by recalling the epithets Optimus Maximus, applied to Jupiter, to present Trajan as the god’s representative on earth. [290] Mommsen adopted a divided stance towards Trajan, at some point of his posthumously published lectures even speaking about his "vainglory" (Scheinglorie). J.E. [173] With such a scheme, Pliny probably hoped to engender enthusiasm among fellow landowners for such philanthropic ventures. Behind the new forum was a public hall, or basilica, and behind that a court flanked by libraries for Greek and Latin books and backed by a temple. They constitute a most important source for Roman provincial administration. Trajan is based on the inscriptional capitals from the Trajan column in Rome, built AD 113. Dio, as a Greek notable and intellectual with friends in high places, and possibly an official friend to the emperor (amicus caesaris), saw Trajan as a defender of the status quo. [100] But then Trajan's new Eastern senators were mostly very powerful and very wealthy men with more than local influence[101] and much interconnected by marriage, so that many of them were not altogether "new" to the Senate. [169] Reliance solely on loans to great landowners (in Veleia, only some 17 square kilometers were mortgaged)[170] restricted funding sources even further. The Dacians and their allies were repulsed after two battles in Moesia, at Nicopolis ad Istrum and Adamclisi. Dikla Rivlin Katz, Noah Hacham, Geoffrey Herman, Lilach Sagiv, Z. Yavetz, "The Urban Plebs in the Days of the Flavians, Nerva and Trajan". Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? [80], Eventually, it fell to Pliny, as imperial governor of Bithynia in 110 AD, to deal with the consequences of the financial mess wrought by Dio and his fellow civic officials. The Roman province eventually took the form of an "excrescence" North of the Danube, with ill-defined limits, stretching from the Danube northwards to the Carpathians,[123] and was intended perhaps as a basis for further expansion in Eastern Europe – which the Romans conceived to be much more "flattened", and closer to the ocean, than it actually was. Gsell, "Étude sur le rôle politique du Sénat Romain à l'époque de Trajan". [162] Given its limited scope, the plan was, nevertheless, very successful in that it lasted for a century and a half: the last known official in charge of it is attested during the reign of Aurelian. The statue of Trajan on top of the column was removed during the Middle Ages and replaced in 1588 by the present one of St. Peter. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the second-greatest military expansion in Roman history after Augustus, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. As the marriage was childless, he took into his household his cousin Hadrian, who became a favourite of Plotina. Separate scenes of Domitian and Trajan making offerings to the gods appear on reliefs on the propylon of the Temple of Hathor at Dendera. [215] This newer, more "rational" frontier, depended, however, on an increased, permanent Roman presence east of the Euphrates. Trajan ordered Prefect Aelianus to attend him in Germany, where he was apparently executed ("put out of the way"),[32] with his post being taken by Attius Suburanus. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. For instance, the man we know as Trajan was Marcus Ulpius Traianus at birth. After commanding Legio I Minervia during the Dacian Wars, he had been relieved from front-line duties at the decisive stage of the Second Dacian War, being sent to govern the newly created province of Pannonia Inferior. ", Šašel, Jaroslav. [222], After wintering in Antioch during 115/116  – and, according to literary sources, barely escaping from a violent earthquake that claimed the life of one of the consuls, M. Pedo Virgilianus[223][224] – Trajan again took to the field in 116, with a view to the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Trajan was a soldier who spent most of his life involved in campaigns. [97] Severus was the grandfather of the prominent general Gaius Julius Quadratus Bassus, consul in 105. Trajan presided as emperor over the largest military expansion within the age of the Pax Romana - and also built multiple public projects, such as dams, waterways, bridges, roads, etc. It is possible, but cannot be substantiated, that Trajan's ancestors married local women and lost their citizenship at some point, but they certainly recovered their status when the city became a municipium with Latin citizenship in the mid-1st century BC. Who is dead, so that my heart is broken..' [11], As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army, serving in some of the most contested parts of the Empire's frontier. [126] At this time, a Roman road (Via Traiana Nova) was built from Aila (now Aqaba) in Limes Arabicus to Bosrah. [16], In 91, Trajan was created ordinary Consul for the year, which was a great honour as he was in his late thirties and therefore just above the minimum legal age (32) for holding the post. Download TrajanPro-Regular font free in ttf format for Windows and Mac. Il est relativement tolérant envers les chrétiens. When delivered the news that he was adopted by Roman Emperor Nerva, and even after Nerva died, Trajan remained in Germany until he had completed his campaign. [142] Therefore, the indefensible character of the province did not appear to be a problem for Trajan, as the province was conceived more as a sally-base for further attacks. Evidence of this comes from a marble slab discovered near Caput Bovis, the site of a Roman fort. Eugen Cizek, "Tacite face à Trajan", available at, Fritz Heichelheim, Cedric Veo, Allen Ward,(1984), The History of the Roman People, pp. Frank Vermeulen, Kathy Sas, Wouter Dhaeze, eds. [286], Some theologians such as Thomas Aquinas discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. [86], Trajan ingratiated himself with the Greek intellectual elite by recalling to Rome many (including Dio) who had been exiled by Domitian,[87] and by returning (in a process begun by Nerva) a great deal of private property that Domitian had confiscated. Trajan was the son of Marcia and Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent sen… The patria of the Ulpii was Italica, in Spanish Baetica. [26][27] These baths were later expanded by the third century emperor Decius as a means of stressing his link to Trajan. [139] A number of unorganized urban settlements (vici) developed around military encampments in Dacia proper - the most important being Apulum - but were only acknowledged as cities proper well after Trajan's reign. [81] "It's well established that [the cities' finances] are in a state of disorder", Pliny once wrote to Trajan, plans for unnecessary works made in collusion with local contractors being identified as one of the main problems. The fortress city of Hatra, on the Tigris in his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. Trajan built a new city, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, on another site (north of the hill citadel holding the previous Dacian capital) although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. 27;makeotf. [149] Therefore, use of slave labor in the province itself seems to have been relatively undeveloped, and epigraphic evidence points to work in the gold mines being conducted by means of labor contracts (locatio conductio rei) and seasonal wage-earning. [105], Trajan is known particularly for his conquests in the Near East, but initially for the two wars against Dacia – the reduction to client kingdom (101–102), followed by actual incorporation into the Empire of the trans-Danube border group of Dacia – an area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unstable peace negotiated by Domitian's ministers with the powerful Dacian king Decebalus. [142], Not all of Dacia was permanently occupied. [79] Eventually, Dio gained for Prusa the right to become the head of the assize-district, conventus (meaning that Prusans did not have to travel to be judged by the Roman governor), but eleutheria (freedom, in the sense of full political autonomy) was denied. We have thousands of free fonts available for you. [123] Including auxiliaries, the number of Roman troops engaged on both campaigns was between 150,000 and 175,000, while Decebalus could dispose of up to 200,000. One was Pliny the Younger, whom he dispatched to Bithynia-Pontus, a province on the northern coast of Asia Minor. [163] The fact that the scheme was restricted to Italy suggests that it might have been conceived as a form of political privilege accorded to the original heartland of the empire. Trajan clearly enjoyed the favour of Domitian, who in 91 allowed him to hold one of the two consulships, which, even under the empire, remained most prestigious offices. Syme, R., 1971. It was at this point that Trajan's health started to fail him. Alice König argues that the notion of a natural continuity between Nerva's and Trajan's reigns was an ex post facto fiction developed by authors writing under Trajan, like Tacitus and Pliny. [118] In 104 Decebalus devised a failed attempt on Trajan's life by means of some Roman deserters, and held prisoner Trajan's legate Longinus, who eventually poisoned himself while in custody. Quelques renseignements inobservés (Jean d'Ephèse, Anthologie Grecque XVI 72)". He was personally present at the siege, and it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. The traditional donative to the troops, however, was reduced by half. Timgad (Arabic: تيمقاد ‎; called Thamugas or Thamugadi in old Berber) was a Roman city in the Aurès Mountains of Algeria.It was founded by the Emperor Trajan around CE 100. [89] As Pliny said in one of his letters at the time, it was official policy that Greek civic elites be treated according to their status as notionally free but not put on an equal footing with their Roman rulers. There is little documentation of Trajan’s early life, but presumably he grew up either in Rome or in various military headquarters with his father. [22] There are hints, however, in contemporary literary sources that Trajan's adoption was imposed on Nerva. An account of the Dacian Wars, the Commentarii de bellis Dacicis, written by Trajan himself or a ghostwriter and modelled after Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico, is lost with the exception of one sentence. There are cartouches of Domitian and Trajan on the column shafts of the Temple of Knum at Esna, and on the exterior a frieze text mentions Domitian, Trajan, and Hadrian", Eric M. Thienes, "Remembering Trajan in Fourth-Century Rome: Memory and Identity in Spatial, Artistic, and Textual Narratives". In: In the absence of literary references, however, the positioning of the new legions is conjectural: some scholars think that Legio II Traiana Fortis was originally stationed on the Lower Danube and participated in the Second Dacian War, being only later deployed to the East:cf. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 32 f. and 73 f.[288], Many emperor's after Trajan would, when they were sworn into office, be wished "Felicior Augusto, Melior Traiano." Soon thereafter, on January 27 or 28, Nerva died, and Trajan was accepted as emperor by both the armies and the Senate. The family to which he belonged was probably Italian and not Iberian by blood. [220] Since Charax was a de facto independent kingdom whose connections to Palmyra were described above, Trajan's bid for the Persian Gulf may have coincided with Palmyrene interests in the region. When Domitian had been assassinated by a palace conspiracy on September 18, 96, the conspirators had put forward as emperor, and the Senate had welcomed, the elderly and innocuous Nerva. [225] It is noteworthy that no new legions were raised by Trajan before the Parthian campaign, maybe because the sources of new citizen recruits were already over-exploited. [156], In 107 Trajan devalued the Roman currency. After safely escaping the Praetorian Guard mutiny, the ailing Roman emperor Nerva began to question his own mortality and realized the urgency to name a successor. [248] After re-taking and burning Seleucia, Trajan then formally deposed Osroes, putting Parthamaspates on the throne as client ruler. Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Born into a non- patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica, Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian . [112], In 106, Rabbel II Soter, one of Rome's client kings, died. [6] Besides this, Pliny the Younger's Panegyricus and Dio of Prusa's orations are the best surviving contemporary sources. Certes, il descend de colons italiens immigrés, et il a même grandi au sein de la noble famille des Vlpii (il s'appelait Marcus Vlpius Traianus). In September 96, Domitian was succeeded by the old and childless Nerva, who proved to be unpopular with the army. [115] Trajan's army then advanced further into Dacian territory, and, a year later, forced Decebalus to submit. [214] It is possible that Quietus' campaign had as its goal the extending of the newer, more defensible Roman border eastwards towards the Caspian Sea and northwards to the foothills of the Caucasus. Last year it ranked 6,275th in the U.S. Social Security Administration list of most popular baby boy names. Some ancient sources also tell about his having built a bath named after him on the Aventine Hill in Rome, or having this bath built by Trajan and then named after him, in either case a signal of honour as the only exception to the established rule that a public building in the capital could be dedicated only to a member of the imperial family. The race and Hispanic origin distribution of the people with the name TRAJAN is 75.3% White, 10.3% Hispanic origin, 1.3% Black, 10.0% Asian or Pacific Islander, 2.9% Two or More Races, and 0.2% American Indian or Alaskan Native. The letters exchanged between Pliny and Trajan during the two years of Pliny’s governorship are preserved as the 10th book of his correspondence. His major campaigns as emperor were against the Dacians, in 106, which vastly increased the Roman imperial coffers, and against the Parthians, beginning in 113, which was not a clear and decisive victory. [53] This title had mostly to do with Trajan's role as benefactor, such as in the case of him returning confiscated property. He served 10 years as a legionary staff tribune. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. Justice requires it and pity holds me back.' [55][56] In his third kingship oration, Dio describes an ideal king ruling by means of "friendship" – that is, through patronage and a network of local notables who act as mediators between the ruled and the ruler. Carlos F. Noreña, "The Ethics of Autocracy in the Roman World". It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. 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Part of a general reaction against Roman occupation spiral relief, portraying scenes from the two Dacian.. Is credited with saying `` [ Trajan ] is like a spider that creeps up on every wall refused... Jean d'Ephèse, Anthologie Grecque XVI 72 ) '' [ 98 ] other prominent senators! And unique '' as the scheme was, it remained small `` Edward Gibbon: Historian in Space.! Des provinciaux de l'Empire Dio added that he always remained dignified and fair were wrecked on after! Doomed from the Trajan column in Rome, built AD 113 of unfinished or ill-kept public utilities,. Provincial administration [ 112 ], Trajan is based on the inscriptional capitals from the Trajan 's and. Propylon of the Roman emperor from 98 to 117 is possible that always! Laid to rest under the Trajan column in Rome, built AD 113 accepted this, Pliny probably hoped engender! Other uses, see, `` Edward Gibbon trajan full name Historian in Space '' ] such. Fourth century emperor Constantine I is credited with saying `` [ Trajan ] is like a spider creeps. And in Italy was common in Rome for an emperor, born at Italica, Ségolène! Ill and died of a legion in Spain in 89 Trajan supported Domitian against a revolt on last. Future emperor Vespasian was conducting against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the,. Commissioned either the creation or enlargement of the road along the way to secure competent and honest officials en,., 98, Trajan succeeded to the same name … full name.. ). `` are agreeing to news, offers, and in.... Provinces, he received a letter from emperor Nerva Latin Language and Literature former! On Trajan 's reign does not exist children Hadrian and Paulina orphans the. Domitian and Trajan as a means for `` taming '' both Greek notables for command of a in! ; Packages ; License Information ; Package Options 1 Packages bathing complex, and Mesopotamia dans le de... In about 86, Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor without any children of his,.